Take Initiative!

Last updated: 210219

My 1e campaigns use a hybrid of 1st and 2nd Edition initiative, permitting more specific and dynamic rounds. Players select an action, and calculate Initiative with modifiers. Each side acts on Initiative. Although Initiative determines only “who goes first”, those scenarios can become complicated.

Basics

A round consists of 20 “segments” determining order of events, but explicitly not equal time intervals. Each round, the player declares an Action, rolls a d10 (Base Initiative), and applies modifiers (movement, weapon speed, spell casting time, etc.) to determine Initiative. Initiative determines which segment of the round the action occurs, typically starting and ending on Initiative. If modifiers adjust Initiative > 20, the character will not act that round. Instead, they act the next round at: Initiative – 20.

Typical actions include: Attack (melee, ranged, non-weapon), Parry, Cast Spell, Move/Close (move with no combat), Charge, Withdraw, Flee, Expect, Parley, or nothing at all. See Appendix A for more details.

Actions sometimes adapt to opponents’ actions. However, if the declared action becomes impossible, characters can choose to do nothing or, sometimes, change their action mid-round by modifying their Initiative. If the character received damage the round of changing the action to casting a spell, the spell will fail unless they roll ≥ a Save vs. Spell: ( d20 – [Spell Level] + [Level of Caster] – [Damage taken] ).

The following things always preclude changing the action:

  • The character’s action is casting a spell. The character can stop casting (ruining the spell) but they can’t start a different action.
  • The character chose to wait until the next round.
  • The current segment is greater than Base Initiative. The character can possibly cease their action, or adapt in pre-specified ways, but can’t change their action to a completely different action.
  • Some circumstances result in the character acting prior to Base Initiative. If the character has already acted, they can’t change their action.

While the GM moderates Initiative interactions, here are some general scenarios:

1.     Change Action

Up to Base Initiative, a character can change their planned action (except spell casting) if their action is no longer valid. They next act at: Base Initiative + 2 + new Initiative roll + modifiers for new action.

Scenario: The character decides they will attack with a sword: ( 9 [d10 Base Initiative] + 5 [Weapon speed] ), attacking on segment 14. By segment 7, their only opponent is slain, leaving them with nothing to do! On Base Initiative of 9, they change their action to move across the room: ( 9 [Base Initiative] + 2 [Change modifier] + 4 [new d10 initiative roll] + 8 [Move > ½ modifier] ) for a revised Initiative of 23—after the end of the round! Instead of acting this round, they will act the next round on segment 3: ( 23 [revised Initiative] – 20 ], without rolling Initiative.

2.     Expecting Someone?

“Expect” a specific event (e.g., someone coming through a door) is a +5 initiative modifier. If the specific event occurs, the PC responds at: Initiative or current segment (whichever is greater) – 3 + new Initiative roll + modifiers (min. 1).

Scenario: Defender decides they will stand next to a door in order to attack an opponent expected to burst through. Defender Initiative is: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 5 [Expect modifier] ) for a total of 9. The door opens on segment 11. Defender responds on revised Initiative: ( 11 [current segment] + d10 [new Initiative roll] – 3 [Expect modifier] + [initiative modifier(s)] ).

3.     Parry

A character may substitute their attack with Parry. Base initiative must be prior to opponent’s total initiative for parry to work. A parry subtracts (half of the defender’s level (+1 for single-classed Fighters) from one attack. Multiple attacks can be parried by single-class Fighters, with the penalty divided across attacks. Parry is not effective versus missile attacks (except for monks), or rear attacks. Parrying a potential Critical subtracts from the second roll (that determines critical success or failure).

Scenario: A 9th level fighter wielding two weapons is engaged with two orcs. Fighter has a –6 To Hit modifier for Parry, and decides to split it evenly across both opponents.
Fighter decides to parry both orc attacks evenly (–3/–3): ( d10 [Base Initiative] ).
Orcs melee attack: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 7 [Weapon Speed modifier] ).

  • If Fighter loses Initiative, orcs attack as normal.
  • If Fighter wins Initiative, Parry replaces his attack (with both primary and secondary weapons5). Each orc applies a –3 penalty to their To Hit roll, causing one orc to miss. The other orc rolls a natural 20. To confirm the critical (per my House Rules), the orc rolls again with a –3 penalty To Hit (and without To Hit bonuses, e.g., Strength, Dex, magic items). If the second roll is still a hit, the blow will be a critical. If the second roll is a miss, the blow will be as normal.

4.     Flee

Flee: Move away at ≤ full movement with a –2 initiative modifier, providing the opponent a free melee attack with a +4 bonus To Hit but no movement. If a fleeing character wins Initiative, they can increase the distance from pursuers by an additional 1” × their Initiative once every turn.

The +4 bonus To Hit incorporates the +2 rear bonus and the +2 stun bonus as they turn to flee.

Scenario: Defender and Pursuer are in melee range (1″).
Defender decides to flee: ( d10 [Base Initiative] – 2 [Flee modifier] ).
Pursuer decides to attack: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + [Weapon Speed] ).

Flee Scenario 4a: Pursuer Wins Initiative

Pursuer attacks. Defender moves away (up to full movement). Pursuer makes a free attack on Defender Initiative with a +4 flee bonus To Hit, but cannot respond otherwise (having acted on Initiative).

Flee Scenario 4b: Defender Wins Initiative

Defender moves away (up to full movement + Initiative). Pursuer makes an immediate free attack with a +4 flee bonus To Hit. If Pursuer wields a melee weapon usable at range (e.g., dagger), Pursuer can ranged attack on Initiative with a +2 rear bonus To Hit but penalized by the distance on Initiative (–2 To Hit for medium range, –5 To Hit for long range).

  • If Pursuer Base Initiative > Defender Initiative, Pursuer can Change Action1 at Base Initiative, and pursue Defender (up to full movement) on revised Initiative: ([Base Initiative] + d10 [new Initiative roll] + 2 [Change modifier] + 8 [Full Movement modifier] ). If revised Initiative is > 20, movement will occur the next round on Initiative –20; must move towards Defender.
  • If Pursuer Base Initiative ≤ Defender Initiative, Pursuer cannot Change Action, but could melee with a different opponent within 1″.

1Pursuer cannot Change Action to Charge, as they are considered engaged for the round.

5.     Pursuit

If the fleeing character wins Initiative, they can increase the distance from pursuers by an additional 1” × their Initiative once every turn they flee. If the pursuer begins the round in melee range and attacks, combat is resolved as if their opponent is fleeing. If the fleeing character is out of visual range, or in an area of “difficult” terrain, a check is made to see if evasion is successful.

Pursuit Scenario 5a: Pursuit

Evader moved the prior round, Pursuer is in pursuit.
Both decide to continue to move: ( d10 [Initiative] + 8 [Move > ½ modifier] ).

Evader moves on Initiative. Once per 10 rounds, Evader can move an additional 1” × Initiative if they won Initiative. Pursuer moves to Evader on Initiative, and completes round (limited to full movement) adjacent to Evader.

Note: If Evader wins Initiative, and turns corners on Initiative, they are out of sight of Pursuer—Pursuer will not know the direction!

Pursuit Scenario 5b: Pursuer Stops and Attacks

Evader moved the prior round, Pursuer is in pursuit within 1″.
Pursuer decides to attack instead of pursue: ( d10 [Initiative] + [Weapon Speed modifier] ).
Evader decides to continue to flee: ( d10 [Initiative] – 2 [Flee modifier] ).

  • If Pursuer wins Initiative, Pursuer attacks (with a +2 rear bonus To Hit). On Evader Initiative, Pursuer gains a free attack with a +4 flee bonus To Hit, but cannot move.
  • If Pursuer loses Initiative, when Evader moves Pursuer gains an immediate free attack with a +4 flee bonus To Hit but cannot move. If Pursuer wields a melee weapon usable at range (e.g., hand axe), Pursuer can ranged attack with a +2 rear bonus To Hit but penalized by the distance on Initiative (–2 To Hit for medium range, –5 To Hit for long range).

6.     Withdraw

Withdraw/Falling Back: Backing away from opponent at ⅓ Movement, still in melee if pursued.

Scenario: Defender decides to Withdraw: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 [ Move ≤ ½ modifier] ).
Pursuer decides to attack: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + [Weapon Speed modifier] ).

  • If Pursuer wins Initiative, Pursuer attacks. Defender withdraws up to ⅓ Movement. Pursuer can immediately follow (up to full movement); Defender attacks on Initiative if Pursuer follows and is within 1″.
  • If Defender wins Initiative, Defender withdraws up to ⅓ Movement. If Pursuer follows on Initiative (up to full movement), Defender and then Pursuer attack if within 1″.

7.     Withdraw Blocking

Withdraw/Falling Back: Backing away from opponent at ⅓ Movement, still in melee if pursued. If two or more attackers melee a single opponent and one attacker decides to withdraw, the remaining attacker can block the opponent’s advance on a limited front.

Scenario: Two defenders (Fallback and Blocker), one Pursuer.
Pursuer decides to attack Fallback: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + [Weapon Speed modifier] ).
Blocker decides to attack Pursuer (and block pursuit): ( d10 [Base Initiative] + [Weapon Speed modifier] ).
Fallback decides to Withdraw: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 [ Move ≤ ½ modifier] ).

Withdraw Blocking Scenario 7a: Pursuer Wins Initiative

Pursuer attacks. Fallback withdraws up to ⅓ Movement. If Pursuer immediately follows (up to full movement), Fallback immediately attacks. Blocker attacks as Pursuer follows (with a +2 rear bonus To Hit), or on Initiative (whichever occurs first). Blocker cannot move.

Withdraw Blocking Scenario 7b: Fallback Wins Initiative

Fallback withdraws up to ⅓ Movement.

  • If Pursuer acts before Blocker, Pursuer can:
    • Change attack to Blocker (with no initiative modifier), and attack. Blocker attacks.
    • Follow Fallback on Initiative (up to full movement) and attack; Fallback immediately attacks. Blocker attacks as Pursuer follows (with a +2 rear bonus To Hit). Blocker cannot move.
  • If Blocker acts before Pursuer, Blocker attacks while blocking pursuit. On Initiative, Pursuer can:
    • Change attack to Blocker (with no initiative modifier) and attack.
    • Attempt to Overrun Blocker (with no Initiative modifier) in an attempt to follow Fallback; success permits the Pursuer to follow Fallback (up to full movement) but not attack. After a successful Overrun, Blocker must roll ≥ a Save vs. Paralyzation or be knocked down.

8.     Ranged Combat

Weapon Speed for bows/darts nocked & ready is +1, +7 arrows, +10 quarrels, +2 darts, +4 other thrown objects. Dex Attack bonus affects Defender Initiative as well as To Hit.

Calculations differ for ranged attacks during aerial combat (by hex), naval combat (by rounds), and underwater combat (by distance).

Attacker and Defender are more than 10′ (1″) apart.

Ranged Scenario 8a: Attacker Closes for Melee

Attacker decides to Close: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 or 8 [Movement modifier] ).
Defender decides to ranged attack: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + [Weapon Speed modifier] – [Dex Attack bonus] ).

Attacker will move but not attack. Defender attacks, with To Hit penalized by the distance on Initiative (–2 To Hit for medium range, –5 To Hit for long range).

Ranged Scenario 8b: Attacker Moves and Ranged Attacks

Attacker decides to Move ≤ ½ and Ranged Attack, wielding a bow: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 [Move ≤ ½ modifier] + 7 [Weapon Speed modifier]2 – [Dex Attack bonus] ).
Defender decides to ranged attack: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + [Weapon Speed modifier] – [Dex Attack bonus] ).

Attacker fire rate halved; Defender fire rate as normal. Attacker moves and ranged attacks with To Hit penalized by the distance after movement (–2 To Hit for medium range, –5 To Hit for long range). Defender attacks, with To Hit penalized by the distance on Initiative (–2 To Hit for medium range, –5 To Hit for long range).

2Attacker can’t be “nocked and ready” due to movement.

9.     Charge

Charge: When not engaged or Severely Encumbered, provides a single melee attack at the end of movement with: a 50% increase to Movement (max of 24”); a +2 bonus To Hit; a +4 init. modifier but attack order by weapon length; no DEX AC bonus (characters with no DEX bonus lose one AC); double damage if mounted with lance or braced with spear or pole arm. Those charging must stop to engage unless mounted. May only charge once per turn. Must see target.

If Attacker wields a throwable melee weapon (e.g., spear), they can hurl it at their opponent on Initiative before entering melee. To Hit is penalized by the distance at the half-way point (–2 To Hit for medium range, –5 To Hit for long range), with no charge bonus To Hit. Defender still makes a melee attack on Attacker Initiative!

Scenario: Attacker and Defender begin the round more than 10′ (1″) apart. Attacker is not in melee (no opponents within 1″).

Charge Scenario 9a: Defender Waits

Attacker decides to Charge: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 [Charge modifier] ).
Defender decides to stand their ground and wait until next round: ( d10 [Base Initiative] ).

On Attacker Initiative both attack at Defender location in order by weapon length. Attacker has a +2 charge bonus To Hit. Defender attacks against Attacker Charge-modified AC.

If Defender Initiative ( [ Base Initiative ] ) – 2 [Set To Receive modifier] ) permits Defender to Set to Receive Charge wielding a spear or pole arm prior to Attacker’s attack, Defender will cause 2× damage rolled on a successful To Hit roll.

Set to Receive Charge does not require changing action.

Charge Scenario 9b: Defender Changes Weapon

Attacker decides to Charge: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 [Charge modifier] ).
Defender decides to change weapons: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 10 [Change Weapon modifier] ).

  • If Defender wins Initiative, both attack on Attacker Initiative in order by weapon length. Attacker has a +2 charge bonus To Hit. Defender attacks against Attacker Charge-modified AC. Defender can brace for a charge if wielding a spear or pole arm, and will cause 2× damage rolled on a successful To Hit roll.
  • If Attacker wins Initiative, Attacker attacks; Defender does not (Defender still changing weapons). Attacker has a +2 charge bonus To Hit. Defender attacks on Initiative against Attacker Charge-modified AC. If Defender Initiative is > 20, Defender will not act until the next round at: Initiative – 20; Attacker AC will be as normal. Defender cannot set to receive charge; they aren’t wielding a weapon on Attacker Initiative.

Charge Scenario 9c: Defender Casts Spell

Attacker decides to Charge: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 [Charge modifier] ).
Defender decides to cast a spell: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 6 [Spell modifier] + [Spell Level] ).

  • If Defender wins Initiative, the spell completes. Attacker attacks with a +2 charge bonus To Hit against Defender with no AC Dex bonus (due to spell casting).
  • If Attacker wins Initiative, Attacker attacks with a +2 charge bonus To Hit against Defender with no Dex AC bonus (due to spell casting). If Attacker hits, the spell fails unless Defender rolls ≥ a Save vs. Spell: ( d20 – [Spell Level] + [Level of Caster] – [Damage taken] ). Otherwise the spell completes on Defender Initiative.

Charge Scenario 9d: Defender Ranged Attacks

Attacker decides to Charge: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 [Charge modifier] ).
Defender decides to ranged attack: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + [Weapon Speed modifier] – [Dex Attack bonus] ).

  • If Defender wins Initiative, ranged To Hit is penalized by the distance on Initiative (–2 To Hit for medium range, –5 To Hit for long range) against Attacker Charge-modified AC.
  • If Attacker wins Initiative, Defender attack is foiled unless the ranged weapon can also be used in melee (e.g., javelin). Attacker attacks with a +2 charge bonus To Hit; if Defender is capable of melee, Attack order is by weapon length and Defender attacks against Attacker Charge-modified AC.

Charge Scenario 9e: Defender Leaves

Attacker decides to Charge: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 [Charge modifier] ).
Defender decides to move farther away from Attacker: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 8 [Move > ½ modifier] ).

  • If Defender wins Initiative, Defender moves. Attacker charges towards Defender (up to full Charge movement). If Attacker reaches Defender, Attacker attacks with a +2 charge bonus and +2 rear bonus To Hit. Defender does not attack. See Pursuit for the next round.
  • If Attacker wins Initiative, Attacker charges to Defender and attacks. Attacker has a +2 charge bonus To Hit. Defender can:
    • Immediately attack against Attacker Charge-modified AC in order by weapon length, but not move.
    • On Initiative, Withdraw up to ⅓ Movement towards their original destination. Attacker can immediately follow (up to full Charge movement). Defender attacks on Initiative if Attacker follows within 1″.
    • On Initiative, move to their original destination. Attacker cannot follow nor free attack.

Charge Scenario 9f: Come Together

If both Attacker and Defender Charge/Move directly towards each other, they arrive at the relative mid-point from the Attacker: ( (Attacker Movement / Defender Movement) × ( distance / 2 ) ) on the earliest Initiative, and attack in order by weapon length if either charged.

Scenario: Attacker & Defender Charge: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4 [Charge modifier] ).

Both arrive at a location relative to their Charge movement on the earliest Initiative, and attack in order by weapon length. Both have a +2 charge bonus To Hit and attack against their opponent’s Charge-modified AC.

Results are similar if Defender decides to Close: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 4|8 [Movement modifier] ) instead of Charge; Defender relative location is based on Defender non-Charge movement, with neither a Charge-modified AC nor bonus To Hit.

10.           Location Matters

Location Scenario 10a: Race

Attacker and Defender both decide to move to Point A: ( d10 [Initiative] + [Move or Charge modifier] ).
First to arrive is determined by Initiative. On an Initiative tie, both arrive simultaneously. Neither attacks unless one (or both) charged, in which case they attack in order by weapon length. Charging characters have a Charge-modified AC.

Note: A character can Charge to a location if there is no opponent4, but has no To Hit bonus.

Location Scenario 10b: Into the Fire(ball)

The most crucial initiative scenario involves movement during the casting of area-of-effect (AoE) spells. Historically I’ve calculated movement segment-by-segment to determine the precise location of the character when the spell was cast. When creating these scenarios, I realized that wasn’t necessary! Let’s break the possibilities down:

  1. The character hasn’t arrived at the AoE yet.
  2. The character has already passed through the AoE.
  3. The character is within the AoE.

Possibility 3 is typically the character location on one specific segment (the segment the spell is cast)—with few exceptions, a 10% chance. There’s also one number on the character’s Base Initiative d10 roll that would have Initiative tie—a 10% chance. Comparing the Initiative scores assigns the same probability as calculating segment-by-segment:

  1. The character has a lower Initiative, acting before the spell is cast.
  2. The character has a higher Initiative, acting after the spell is cast.
  3. The character has a matching Initiative—Wrong place, wrong time.

We can remove calculating location segment-by-segment, making our admittedly complicated system a little less complicated.

In the case of spell AoE exceeding 1/10 of movement (roughly how far a creature moves from one segment to the next), expand the Initiative range from a simple tie to comparing the appropriate number of segments before and/or after Initiative.

Scenario: Fighter with a move of 12″ decides to cross the room: ( d10 [Base Initiative] + 8 [Move > ½] ).
A mage decides to cast a fireball in the middle of the room with an unconstrained AoE of 4″:
( d10 [Base Initiative] + 6 [Spell modifier] + [Spell Level] ).

The fireball detonates at Mage Initiative. Fighter Initiative equals Mage Initiative ± 1 (representing 36′ of movement). Fighter is (literally) caught in the crossfire! Fighter rolls a Save vs. Spell at Mage Initiative, and then completes movement at Initiative (should they survive!).

Glossary

  • Base Initiative: a d10 roll.
  • Charge: Move up to 150% of Movement, and attack once that round.
  • Close: Move (up to normal Movement) safely into melee range with an opponent; neither opponent melee attacks (unless the opponent Charges).
  • Charge-adjusted AC: AC without Dexterity Defensive Adjustment, or add +1 to AC if the character has no Dexterity Defensive Adjustment.
  • Flee: A round of full movement when leaving melee, providing the opponent a free melee attack at +4 To Hit.
  • Free attack: An additional attack from specific circumstances.
  • Overrun: One or more characters attempting to push through one or more opponents. A contested Close Combat Check roll.
  • Round: One combat instance divided into 20 segments defining order of events. If several creatures act in the same segment, action is simultaneous.
  • Total Initiative: The initiative roll including all initiative modifiers (e.g., movement, weapon speed), referred to as “Initiative” for that individual.
  • Win Initiative: Have the lower Initiative.

Note the various movement types (e.g., Move, Charge, Flee) are mutually exclusive.

Appendix A—Actions

  • Melee: “I attack the ogre in front of me.”
  • Charge: “I charge the ogre on the other of the room” (with associated bonuses and penalties).
  • Cast Spell: “I cast fireball 30′ into the room.”
  • Expect: “If they come through the door I’ll attack.”
  • Wait: “I wait until next round to see what they do.”
  • Parley: “I tell them, ‘We come in peace, can we be friends? We offer you gold!'”

Each round typically consists of one action per character. Circumstances can permit modifying or changing an action, or even permit a “free” additional action. Normal actions in a round include: all forms of attack (ranged, melee, non-weapon, back stab, assassination), parrying, standing up, picking up a weapon, lighting a torch, binding wounds, casting a spell, reading a scroll, turning undead, druid form change, using a magic item, listening at a door, one attempt at opening a stuck door, opening a known secret door, hiding in shadows, moving more than half movement, mounting/dismounting (unless cavalier or proficient), climbing an obstacle, searching a 10′ area for a secret door, searching a door or chest for a trap, attempting to parley, etc.

An action is movement (if any) followed by an action. Actions in the context of movement typically require half movement: Mounting a horse, moving through an unstuck/unlocked closed door, overrunning an opponent, etc.

Each round a character can also perform one “minor” action (applying any appropriate initiative modifier(s)) interacting with an object or feature in the environment. Two minor actions constitute a full action, regardless of Initiative. Minor actions prevent multiple-attack capabilities. Examples include: open or close an unlocked/unstuck door, spike a door, draw a sword, change a weapon, drop pack or other equipment, open a backpack, pick a pocket, get spell components (or other item) from pouch, quaff a potion, etc.

Some actions can require more than one round. Potions take effect after an additional d4+1 segments. Donning or removing armor takes: ( 10 – Armor AC ) rounds (e.g., removing Leather Armor AC 8 takes 2 rounds). Picking a lock or disarming a trap takes d4 rounds. Thoroughly searching a 10’×10′ area takes a turn (10 rounds). Figuring out how to open a secret door takes a turn. The gnome and dwarf underground abilities take a turn to discern the available information.

Appendix B—Initiative Modifiers
CHARACTER ACTION                        INIT. MODIFIER

Movement
Charging (+50% MV, no DEX)                         +4
Movement (Prevents casting, normal melee)
Movement > 10’, £ ½ Movement                +4
   *Movement > ½ Movement                           +8
   *Turn to Flee (free attack at +4)  –2
*Standing Up                                                        Round

Environment
Hindered (Tangled/Climbing/Held)                 +3
On Higher Ground                                               –1
Opening a door                                                    +6

Weapon
*Use of Weapon                                  +Weapon Speed1
Multiple melee targets                        +1 for each, End of Round
Draw Weapon2,4                                                   +4
Change Weapon3,4                                              +10
Sheath Weapon4,5                                                +6
Drop Weapon                                                       +2
*Pick up Weapon                                                +8
Parry                                                                      0
Set to Receive Charge                                        –2

Magic
*Turn Undead                                                      +6
*Breath Weapon / At Will                                +2
*Casting a Spell6                                                 +6 + Spell Lvl
                (except spells > 1 round = as normal)
*Scroll                                                                   As Spell +6
*Other Magic Item                                             +4
Potion effect                                                         d4+1
Slowed7                                                                  –

Other
Infravision                                                            +58
Expect <something>                                           +5
Change Action                                     +2+Init Reroll+Action
Respond to Specific Event                                –3+Init Reroll+Action
*Unarmed Attack/Action, S/M/L                    +2/+3/+5

Notes:

*Primary Action—no further actions
1SF for bows/darts nocked/ready is +1, +7 arrows, +10 quarrels, +2 darts, +4 other thrown objects. If MV, fire rate halved. Dex Attack bonus affects Init. Grenade-like AC:5.
2Characters with IAIJUTSU do not suffer this modifier.
3Characters with IAIJUTSU in both weapons are +5.
4Changing/drawing weapons prevents 2nd attack.
5Characters with IAIJUTSU have this halved.
6 (+8 + Spell Lvl) without spell cards. Max 20.
7Slowed characters act every other round.
8Choose to swing before or after, prior to init. DMG p.59

References

Dragon Magazine, Issue 71, “Attack Priority System offers more Realism without more Work,” March 1986.
4Swords & Spells, 1979.
5“The secondary weapon does not act as a shield or parrying device in any event. “, DMG, p. 70.

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Author: Rick

A DM for *mumble* years, I've been playing AD&D since junior high. I've currently got two separate campaigns running, both in Mystara. I've been told when they handed out hobbies, I stood in the short lines. I actively cycle tour, kayak, play board games, read, develop home automation software, volunteer with the American Red Cross, and work on a never-ending stream of home repairs. In my wake I've left paintball, medieval full-contact combat (SCA), computer gaming, Heroclix, tablet weaving, and kite construction.

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